Capital of Assyria on the eastern bank of the Tigris, its traditional founder being Nimrod, the great hunter (Gen. 10:11–12). For several centuries Calah outstripped it in importance, but under Sennacherib it again became the capital (2 Kgs. 19:36; Isa. 37:37). It was for more than 200 years a great commercial center and also contained a large library of clay books. The city fell at the downfall of the Assyrian empire, 606 B.C. See Assyria and Babylonia. For prophecies concerning Nineveh, see Jonah 1:2; 3:2–7; 4:11; Nahum 1:1; 2:8; 3:7; Zeph. 2:13. Repentant Nineveh, a sign to the Jews (Matt. 12:41; Luke 11:32). Its ruins have been carefully explored, and many important sculptures and inscriptions have been brought to light.