Chronology of the Old Testament


Chronology of the Old Testament

B.C.

Sequence of Events in the Days of the Early Patriarchs

B.C.

4000

Sequence of Events in the Days of the Early Patriarchs

Fall of Adam.

Ministry of Enoch.

Ministry of Noah; the Flood.

Tower of Babel.

Ministry of Melchizedek.

Death of Noah (Gen. 9:28).

(Those desiring calculated dates on these events may wish to consult published chronologies.)

Sequence of Events in the Days of the Early Patriarchs

Birth of Abram.

Birth of Isaac.

Birth of Jacob.

Birth of Joseph.

Joseph sold into Egypt (Gen. 37:2).

Joseph stands before Pharaoh (Gen. 41:46).

Jacob and his family go down to Egypt.

Death of Jacob.

Death of Joseph.

Birth of Moses.

The Exodus when Moses was 80 years old.

Death (translation) of Moses.

Death of Joshua.

In the days of Abram we meet with the names of Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, and Amraphel, king of Shinar. Egypt was manifestly a powerful kingdom before and during the patriarchal times, but the early annals of Egypt as they have come down to us help us to few synchronisms that can be relied on.

Sequence of Events in the Days of the Early Patriarchs

After the death of Joshua was the period of the Judges, of whom the first was Othniel and the last Samuel, but the arrangement and dates of the rest are very uncertain.

The commencement of the Assyrian empire appears to have been somewhere in the period of the Judges, but much of the chronological data preserved in Assyrian tablets is of a mythical character.

In this section approximate dates are suggested, some help being derived from synchronisms with secular history, which become more numerous with every succeeding century.

B.C.

The Undivided Kingdom

Persons and Events of External History

B.C.

1095

The Undivided Kingdom

Commencement of Saul’s reign. Samuel lives for a great part of Saul’s reign.

Persons and Events of External History

Nahash, king of Ammon.

Tiglath-pileser Ⅰ, king of Assyria.

Agag, king of Amalek.

Achish, king of Gath.

B.C.

1063

The Undivided Kingdom

David anointed by Samuel.

B.C.

1055

The Undivided Kingdom

David king in Hebron.

B.C.

1047

The Undivided Kingdom

David king in Jerusalem. Nathan and Gad, prophets.

Persons and Events of External History

Hiram, king of Tyre.

Hadadezer, king of Zobah.

Toi, king of Hamath.

Hanun, son of Nahash, king of Ammon.

B.C.

1015

The Undivided Kingdom

Solomon made king. Death of David.

B.C.

1012

The Undivided Kingdom

Solomon begins to build the temple.

Persons and Events of External History

Hiram, king of Tyre.

B.C.

1004

The Undivided Kingdom

Solomon begins to build his own house.

B.C.

991

The Undivided Kingdom

The buildings are finished.

Persons and Events of External History

Hadad the Edomite is protected in Egypt.

Genubath, son of Hadad.

Rezon, king of Zobah.

Shishak, king of Egypt, shelters Jeroboam.

B.C.

975

The Undivided Kingdom

Death of Solomon. The ten tribes revolt from Rehoboam.

In the following table the first column of dates follows the books of Kings and Chronicles; the third column contains a revised chronology derived from inscriptions on Assyrian and other monuments. The kings of Judah are printed in heavy type, and the kings of Israel in capitals.

B.C.

Kings of Judah and Israel

Rev. Chr.

Internal History

External History

Synchronisms

B.C.

975

Kings of Judah and Israel

Rehoboam

Jeroboam Ⅰ

Rev. Chr.

953

Internal History

Ahijah the Shilomite prophesies, also Shemaiah.

Penuel built (1 Kgs. 12:25).

External History

Synchronisms

Shishak, king of Egypt.

Rev. Chr.

949

Internal History

Shishak plunders Jerusalem.

B.C.

957

Kings of Judah and Israel

Abijam

Rev. Chr.

932

B.C.

955

Kings of Judah and Israel

Asa

Rev. Chr.

929

B.C.

954

Kings of Judah and Israel

Nadab

Rev. Chr.

927

Internal History

Oded and Azariah prophesy.

External History

Asa’s war with Zerah the Ethiopian.

B.C.

953

Kings of Judah and Israel

Baasha

Rev. Chr.

925

Internal History

War of Israel against Judah.

Hanani and Jehu prophesy.

B.C.

930

Kings of Judah and Israel

Elah

Rev. Chr.

901

Internal History

External History

Asa’s alliance with Benhadad Ⅰ.

B.C.

929

Kings of Judah and Israel

Zimri

Rev. Chr.

899

B.C.

929

Kings of Judah and Israel

Omri (at war with Tibni)

Rev. Chr.

897

B.C.

925

Kings of Judah and Israel

Omri (victorious)

Internal History

Benhadad Ⅰ conquers Omri (1 Kgs. 20:34).

B.C.

918

Kings of Judah and Israel

Ahab

Rev. Chr.

875

Internal History

Samaria built (1 Kgs. 16:24).

External History

Synchronisms

Ethbaal (Eithobalus), king of Zidon.

B.C.

914

Kings of Judah and Israel

Jehoshaphat

Rev. Chr.

873

Internal History

Elijah the Tishbite.

Jericho rebuilt.

Micaiah son of Imlah prophesies.

External History

Syrian invasion of Samaria (1 Kgs. 20:34).

B.C.

914

Kings of Judah and Israel

Jehoshaphat

Rev. Chr.

873

Internal History

Elijah the Tishbite.

Jericho rebuilt.

Micaiah son of Imlah prophesies.

External History

Moab rebels against Israel.

Synchronisms

Mesha, king of Moab.

B.C.

898

Kings of Judah and Israel

Ahaziah

Rev. Chr.

853

Internal History

Jahaziel prophesies (2 Chr. 20:14).

Eliezer of Mareshah prophesies (2 Chr. 20:37).

B.C.

897

Kings of Judah and Israel

Jehoram

Rev. Chr.

851

Internal History

Elisha prophesies.

Obadiah prophesies (?).

External History

Battle of Ramoth-gilead.

Synchronisms

Hazael, king of Syria.

B.C.

893

Kings of Judah and Israel

Joram

Rev. Chr.

848

B.C.

885

Kings of Judah and Israel

Ahaziah

Rev. Chr.

844

B.C.

884

Kings of Judah and Israel

Athaliah

Jehu

Rev. Chr.

843

B.C.

878

Kings of Judah and Israel

Joash

Rev. Chr.

837

Internal History

Joash buys off Hazael’s invasion (2 Kgs. 12:18).

External History

Syrian victories over Israel (2 Kgs. 10:32).

Synchronisms

Sardanapalus dies.

B.C.

856

Kings of Judah and Israel

Jehoahaz

Internal History

Joel prophesies (?).

B.C.

842

Kings of Judah and Israel

Jehoash

Rev. Chr.

798

B.C.

841

Kings of Judah and Israel

Amaziah

Rev. Chr.

797

Internal History

External History

Synchronisms

Shalmaneser Ⅱ.

B.C.

826

Kings of Judah and Israel

Jeroboam Ⅱ

Rev. Chr.

790

Internal History

Hosea prophesies.

Jonah prophesies (2 Kgs. 14:25).

External History

Amaziah subdues Edom (2 Kgs. 14:7).

Synchronisms

Shalmaneser Ⅲ.

B.C.

811

Kings of Judah and Israel

Azariah or Uzziah

Rev. Chr.

792

Internal History

Amos prophesies.

B.C.

773

Kings of Judah and Israel

Zechariah

Rev. Chr.

749

Internal History

External History

Synchronisms

First Olympiad.

B.C.

772

Kings of Judah and Israel

Shallum

Rev. Chr.

748

B.C.

772

Kings of Judah and Israel

Menahem

Rev. Chr.

748

Internal History

External History

There is much uncertainty about the chronology of the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, and Pekah, and from 2 Kgs. 15:1–2, and 30–32, it is clear that there is some confusion in the biblical numbers. Uzziah’s name is now thought to have been discovered in an Assyrian inscription 740 B.C. If that proves correct, the commencement of Isaiah’s prophecy cannot date before that year, and the time of Jotham’s regency may have been counted as regnal years. In these tables the biblical numbers have been adhered to, as far as possible, but they require further elucidation, which we may hope for as the Assyrian chronology becomes more assured.

Synchronisms

Pul, king of Assyria (= Tiglath-pileser Ⅲ?).

B.C.

761

Kings of Judah and Israel

Pekahiah

External History

There is much uncertainty about the chronology of the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, and Pekah, and from 2 Kgs. 15:1–2, and 30–32, it is clear that there is some confusion in the biblical numbers. Uzziah’s name is now thought to have been discovered in an Assyrian inscription 740 B.C. If that proves correct, the commencement of Isaiah’s prophecy cannot date before that year, and the time of Jotham’s regency may have been counted as regnal years. In these tables the biblical numbers have been adhered to, as far as possible, but they require further elucidation, which we may hope for as the Assyrian chronology becomes more assured.

B.C.

759

Kings of Judah and Israel

Pekah

Internal History

External History

There is much uncertainty about the chronology of the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, and Pekah, and from 2 Kgs. 15:1–2, and 30–32, it is clear that there is some confusion in the biblical numbers. Uzziah’s name is now thought to have been discovered in an Assyrian inscription 740 B.C. If that proves correct, the commencement of Isaiah’s prophecy cannot date before that year, and the time of Jotham’s regency may have been counted as regnal years. In these tables the biblical numbers have been adhered to, as far as possible, but they require further elucidation, which we may hope for as the Assyrian chronology becomes more assured.

Synchronisms

Rezin, king of Syria.

B.C.

758

Kings of Judah and Israel

Jotham

Rev. Chr.

740

Internal History

Isaiah begins to prophesy.

External History

There is much uncertainty about the chronology of the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, and Pekah, and from 2 Kgs. 15:1–2, and 30–32, it is clear that there is some confusion in the biblical numbers. Uzziah’s name is now thought to have been discovered in an Assyrian inscription 740 B.C. If that proves correct, the commencement of Isaiah’s prophecy cannot date before that year, and the time of Jotham’s regency may have been counted as regnal years. In these tables the biblical numbers have been adhered to, as far as possible, but they require further elucidation, which we may hope for as the Assyrian chronology becomes more assured.

Synchronisms

Rome founded.

Era of Nabonassar, 747.

Tiglath-pileser Ⅲ, king of Assyria (747–734).

So, king of Egypt.

Kings of Judah and Israel

Pekahiah (rev. chr.)

Rev. Chr.

737

Kings of Judah and Israel

Pekah (rev. chr.)

Rev. Chr.

735

B.C.

742

Kings of Judah and Israel

Ahaz

Rev. Chr.

734

B.C.

730

Kings of Judah and Israel

Hoshea

Rev. Chr.

733

Internal History

B.C.

726

Kings of Judah and Israel

Hezekiah

Rev. Chr.

728

Internal History

External History

There is much uncertainty about the chronology of the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, and Pekah, and from 2 Kgs. 15:1–2, and 30–32, it is clear that there is some confusion in the biblical numbers. Uzziah’s name is now thought to have been discovered in an Assyrian inscription 740 B.C. If that proves correct, the commencement of Isaiah’s prophecy cannot date before that year, and the time of Jotham’s regency may have been counted as regnal years. In these tables the biblical numbers have been adhered to, as far as possible, but they require further elucidation, which we may hope for as the Assyrian chronology becomes more assured.

Synchronisms

Shalmaneser Ⅴ, king of Assyria, 727.

B.C.

721

Kings of Judah and Israel

End of the Northern kingdom

Rev. Chr.

722

Internal History

Micah prophesies.

External History

There is much uncertainty about the chronology of the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, and Pekah, and from 2 Kgs. 15:1–2, and 30–32, it is clear that there is some confusion in the biblical numbers. Uzziah’s name is now thought to have been discovered in an Assyrian inscription 740 B.C. If that proves correct, the commencement of Isaiah’s prophecy cannot date before that year, and the time of Jotham’s regency may have been counted as regnal years. In these tables the biblical numbers have been adhered to, as far as possible, but they require further elucidation, which we may hope for as the Assyrian chronology becomes more assured.

Synchronisms

Sargon.

Merodach-baladan, king of Babylon, 722.

Death of Sennacherib, 681.

Esarhaddon.

Median kingdom formed.

B.C.

697

Kings of Judah and Israel

Manasseh

Rev. Chr.

697

Internal History

External History

There is much uncertainty about the chronology of the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, and Pekah, and from 2 Kgs. 15:1–2, and 30–32, it is clear that there is some confusion in the biblical numbers. Uzziah’s name is now thought to have been discovered in an Assyrian inscription 740 B.C. If that proves correct, the commencement of Isaiah’s prophecy cannot date before that year, and the time of Jotham’s regency may have been counted as regnal years. In these tables the biblical numbers have been adhered to, as far as possible, but they require further elucidation, which we may hope for as the Assyrian chronology becomes more assured.

Synchronisms

Psammetichus, king of Egypt, 670.

Fall of No-amon (Thebes), 660.

B.C.

642

Kings of Judah and Israel

Amon

Rev. Chr.

642

Internal History

Nahum prophesies (?).

External History

There is much uncertainty about the chronology of the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, and Pekah, and from 2 Kgs. 15:1–2, and 30–32, it is clear that there is some confusion in the biblical numbers. Uzziah’s name is now thought to have been discovered in an Assyrian inscription 740 B.C. If that proves correct, the commencement of Isaiah’s prophecy cannot date before that year, and the time of Jotham’s regency may have been counted as regnal years. In these tables the biblical numbers have been adhered to, as far as possible, but they require further elucidation, which we may hope for as the Assyrian chronology becomes more assured.

Synchronisms

Assurbanipal (667–626).

B.C.

640

Kings of Judah and Israel

Josiah

Rev. Chr.

640

Internal History

Huldah the prophetess.

Jeremiah begins to prophesy, 628.

Zephaniah prophesies.

External History

There is much uncertainty about the chronology of the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, and Pekah, and from 2 Kgs. 15:1–2, and 30–32, it is clear that there is some confusion in the biblical numbers. Uzziah’s name is now thought to have been discovered in an Assyrian inscription 740 B.C. If that proves correct, the commencement of Isaiah’s prophecy cannot date before that year, and the time of Jotham’s regency may have been counted as regnal years. In these tables the biblical numbers have been adhered to, as far as possible, but they require further elucidation, which we may hope for as the Assyrian chronology becomes more assured.

Synchronisms

Pharaoh Necho, king of Egypt.

Nabopolassar, king of Babylon, 625–604.

B.C.

609

Kings of Judah and Israel

Jehoahaz

Rev. Chr.

609

Internal History

Obadiah prophesies (?).

External History

Synchronisms

Fall of Nineveh, 606.

B.C.

609

Kings of Judah and Israel

Jehoiakim

Rev. Chr.

609

Internal History

Daniel carried captive, 606.

External History

Synchronisms

Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, 604–561.

B.C.

598

Kings of Judah and Israel

Jehoiachin

Rev. Chr.

598

Internal History

Habakkuk prophesies.

B.C.

598

Kings of Judah and Israel

Zedekiah

Rev. Chr.

598

Internal History

Ezekiel prophesies.

B.C.

587

Kings of Judah and Israel

Capture of Jerusalem

Rev. Chr.

587

B.C.

Jewish History

External History

B.C.

561

Jewish History

Jehoiachin’s captivity relaxed.

External History

Evil-merodach, king of Babylon.

B.C.

559

Jewish History

External History

Commencement of the Persian Empire under Cyrus.

Neriglissar, king of Babylon, 559–555.

B.C.

555

Jewish History

External History

Belshazzar co-regent with Nabonidus.

B.C.

538

Jewish History

External History

Union of Media and Persia under Cyrus.

Fall of Babylon.

B.C.

537

Jewish History

Decree of Cyrus for the return of the Jews.

B.C.

536

Jewish History

Joshua, high priest.

B.C.

529

Jewish History

Ahasuerus (Ezra 4:6).

External History

=Cambyses, king of Persia, 529–521.

B.C.

525

Jewish History

External History

Egypt conquered by Cambyses. Birth of Aeschylus.

B.C.

521

Jewish History

Artaxerxes (Ezra 4:7).

External History

=Pseudo-Smerdis.

B.C.

521

Jewish History

Darius Ⅰ (Ezra 4:5).

External History

=Darius Hystaspes.

B.C.

520

Jewish History

The hindered temple building resumed. Haggai and Zechariah prophesy.

External History

Sophocles born, 495.

B.C.

490

Jewish History

External History

Battle of Marathon.

B.C.

486

Jewish History

Ahasuerus (Esth. 1:1).

External History

=Xerxes, 486–465.

Egypt revolts from Persia for 2 years.

B.C.

483

Jewish History

Joiakim, high priest.

External History

Battles of Thermopylae and Salamis, 480.

B.C.

465

Jewish History

Artaxerxes (Ezra 7:1).

External History

=Artaxerxes Longimanus.

B.C.

458

Jewish History

Commission of Ezra.

B.C.

453

Jewish History

Eliashib, high priest.

B.C.

444

Jewish History

Nehemiah appointed governor of Judea.

B.C.

432

Jewish History

Nehemiah’s second mission to Jerusalem. Prophecy of Malachi.

External History

Plato born, 429.

B.C.

424

Jewish History

Darius Ⅱ.

External History

=Darius Nothus.

B.C.

414

Jewish History

External History

Egypt and Media both revolt from Persia.

B.C.

413

Jewish History

Joiada, high priest.

B.C.

404

Jewish History

External History

Artaxerxes Mnemon.

B.C.

401

Jewish History

External History

Battle of Cunaxa.

Demosthenes born, 382.

B.C.

373

Jewish History

Johanan, high priest.

B.C.

359

Jewish History

External History

Philip, king of Macedon.

B.C.

358

Jewish History

External History

Darius Ochus.

Plato dies, 348.

B.C.

341

Jewish History

Jaddua, high priest.

B.C.

337

Jewish History

External History

Arses.

B.C.

336

Jewish History

Darius Ⅲ (Neh. 12:22).

External History

=Darius Codomannus.

Philip of Macedon slain.

B.C.

332

Jewish History

Jaddua goes out to meet Alexander.

External History

Alexander in Syria and Egypt.

B.C.

331

Jewish History

External History

Battle of Arbela.

B.C.

330

Jewish History

External History

Darius slain. End of the Persian power.

B.C.

323

Jewish History

External History

Ptolemy Lagides obtains Egypt.

Death of Alexander the Great and dismemberment of his empire.

B.C.

Jewish History

Egypt

Syria

B.C.

321

Jewish History

Onias Ⅰ, high priest.

B.C.

320

Jewish History

Ptolemy (Lagides) Soter takes Jerusalem.

B.C.

314

Jewish History

Antigonus conquers Palestine from Ptolemy.

B.C.

312

Jewish History

Egypt

Syria

Seleucus (Nicator).

B.C.

311

Jewish History

Palestine by treaty assigned to Antigonus.

B.C.

302

Jewish History

Palestine retaken by Ptolemy.

Egypt

During this disturbed period many Jews migrated from Palestine and settled in Egypt and in parts of Asia Minor; they were held in much esteem by the rulers of those countries in which they settled.

B.C.

301

Jewish History

Battle of Ipsus. Antigonus defeated by Seleucus.

B.C.

300

Jewish History

Simon the Just, high priest.

B.C.

292

Jewish History

Eleazar, high priest.

B.C.

284

Jewish History

Egypt

Ptolemy Philadelphus.

B.C.

280

Jewish History

Egypt

About this time the Septuagint version of the Hebrew scriptures appears to have been commenced in Alexandria, though it was not finished for more than a century after.

Syria

Antiochus (Soter).

B.C.

277

Jewish History

Manasseh, high priest.

Egypt

About this time the Septuagint version of the Hebrew scriptures appears to have been commenced in Alexandria, though it was not finished for more than a century after.

B.C.

260

Jewish History

Egypt

About this time the Septuagint version of the Hebrew scriptures appears to have been commenced in Alexandria, though it was not finished for more than a century after.

Syria

Antiochus (Theos).

B.C.

250

Jewish History

Onias Ⅱ, high priest.

B.C.

246

Jewish History

Egypt

Ptolemy Euergetes.

B.C.

245

Jewish History

Egypt

Syria

Seleucus Callinicus.

B.C.

225

Jewish History

Tribute due to Egypt not paid by Onias.

Egypt

Syria

Seleucus Keraunus.

B.C.

223

Jewish History

Egypt

Syria

Antiochus the Great.

B.C.

221

Jewish History

Egypt

Ptolemy Philopator.

B.C.

217

Jewish History

Simon Ⅱ, high priest.

Egypt

Ptolemy’s outrage in the Jewish temple.

B.C.

216

Jewish History

Battle of Raphia.

Egypt

Treaty between Antiochus and Ptolemy.

B.C.

204

Jewish History

Egypt

Ptolemy Epiphanes.

B.C.

195

Jewish History

Onias Ⅲ, high priest.

B.C.

187

Jewish History

Egypt

Syria

Seleucus Philopator.

B.C.

180

Jewish History

Egypt

Ptolemy Philometor.

B.C.

176

Jewish History

Heliodorus sent to plunder the temple.

B.C.

175

Jewish History

Onias deposed by Antiochus. Jason, high priest.

Egypt

Syria

Antiochus Epiphanes.

B.C.

173

Jewish History

Egypt

Cleopatra, guardian of Philometor, dies.

B.C.

172

Jewish History

Menelaus, Jason’s brother, nominated high priest.

B.C.

172

Jewish History

Onias Ⅲ murdered about this time.

B.C.

170

Jewish History

Egypt

Syria

Antiochus defeats the Egyptians.

B.C.

169

Jewish History

Jason seizes Jerusalem, which Antiochus attacks on his return from Egypt and pollutes the temple.

Egypt

Syria

Second invasion of Egypt.

B.C.

168

Jewish History

Daily sacrifice interrupted.

Egypt

Ptolemy Physcon set up for a time in Egypt but soon makes common cause with his brother Philometor.

Syria

Third attack on Egypt.

B.C.

167

Jewish History

Mattathias the Hasmonean revolts.

B.C.

166

Jewish History

Battle of Emmaus. Victory of Judas Maccabaeus.

B.C.

165

Jewish History

Dedication of the temple.

B.C.

164

Jewish History

Egypt

Syria

Antiochus Eupator.

B.C.

163

Jewish History

Lysias defeated by Judas at Bethsura. Alcimus, high priest. Menelaus put to death.

B.C.

162

Jewish History

Egypt

Syria

Demetrius Soter.

B.C.

161

Jewish History

Nicanor defeated at Capharsalama. Death of Judas Maccabaeus at Eleasa.

Egypt

Contests between Philometor and Physcon. Appeals to Rome.

B.C.

160

Jewish History

Decree of the Roman Senate in favor of the Jews.

B.C.

159

Jewish History

Death of Alcimus.

B.C.

156

Jewish History

Jonathan, brother of Judas, ruler of Judea.

B.C.

153

Jewish History

Jonathan made high priest by Balas.

Egypt

Syria

Alexander Balas set up against Demetrius.

B.C.

150

Jewish History

Jonathan honored by Philometor and Balas.

Egypt

Syria

Alexander Balas, king of Syria.

B.C.

149

Jewish History

Egypt

Onias, son of Onias Ⅲ, made commander-in-chief in Egypt.

B.C.

146

Jewish History

Egypt

Ptolemy Philometor opposes Alexander Balas.

B.C.

145

Jewish History

Egypt

Ptolemy Physcon (Euergetes Ⅱ).

Syria

Demetrius Nicator.

B.C.

143

Jewish History

Jonathan put to death by Tryphon. Simon, high priest.

B.C.

142

Jewish History

Simon, “Prince of the Jews.” Jews allowed to coin money.

B.C.

139

Jewish History

Egypt

Syria

Antiochus Sidetes. Tryphon put to death.

B.C.

135

Jewish History

Murder of Simon. John Hyrcanus, high priest.

B.C.

130

Jewish History

Egypt

Syria

Demetrius Nicator.

B.C.

126

Jewish History

Egypt

Syria

Zebina.

B.C.

123

Jewish History

Egypt

Syria

Antiochus Grypus.

B.C.

116

Jewish History

Egypt

Ptolemy Lathyrus (Soter Ⅱ).

B.C.

109

Jewish History

Hyrcanus wars on Samaria and destroys the temple on Gerizim.

Egypt

Cleopatra and Alexander.

B.C.

106

Jewish History

Hyrcanus dies. Aristobulus (his son), first king of the Jews.

B.C.

105

Jewish History

Alexander Jannaeus made king of the Jews.

B.C.

96

Jewish History

Jannaeus captures Gaza.

Egypt

Ptolemy, king of Cyrene, bequeaths his kingdom to the Romans.

Syria

Seleucus succeeds his father Grypus.

B.C.

94

Jewish History

The Pharisees hostile to Jannaeus.

B.C.

93

Jewish History

War of Jannaeus in Gilead and Moab.

B.C.

92

Jewish History

Egypt

Syria

Philip, brother of Seleucus, gains the throne.

B.C.

88

Jewish History

Jannaeus defeated at Shechem.

B.C.

87

Jewish History

Egypt

Ptolemy Lathyrus recalled.

B.C.

83

Jewish History

Egypt

Syria

Tigranes, king of Armenia, set over Syria.

B.C.

80

Jewish History

Egypt

Ptolemy Alexander.

B.C.

78

Jewish History

Death of Jannaeus. Alexandra, his widow, rules after him. Hyrcanus Ⅱ, high priest.

B.C.

69

Jewish History

Aristobulus Ⅱ seizes the government.

B.C.

66

Jewish History

Egypt

Syria

Pompey conquers Syria for the Romans.

Syria

Roman Affairs

B.C.

65

Jewish History

Egypt

Ptolemy Auletes.

B.C.

64

Jewish History

Disputes between Aristobulus and Hyrcanus.

B.C.

63

Jewish History

Jerusalem taken by Pompey. Hyrcanus again high priest.

B.C.

54

Jewish History

Palestine divided into five districts.

Egypt

Syria

Crassus defeated by the Parthians at Carrhae, 53.

B.C.

51

Jewish History

Crassus plunders the temple.

Egypt

Cleopatra.

B.C.

48

Jewish History

Antipater made a governor over Judea.

Egypt

Syria

Battle of Pharsalia.

Battle of Thapsus, 46.

B.C.

44

Jewish History

Hyrcanus, “Prince of the Jews.”

Egypt

Syria

Assassination of Caesar.

B.C.

42

Jewish History

Egypt

Syria

Battle of Philippi.

B.C.

41

Jewish History

Herod and Phasael, joint tetrarchs of Judea.

B.C.

40

Jewish History

Herod flees to Rome. Antigonus set up in his stead.

B.C.

38

Jewish History

Herod marries Mariamne.

B.C.

37

Jewish History

Herod takes Jerusalem.

B.C.

31

Jewish History

Egypt

Syria

Battle of Actium.

Augustus, emperor, 31 B.C.A.D. 14.

B.C.

30

Jewish History

Egypt

Cleopatra dies. Egypt becomes a Roman province.

B.C.

29

Jewish History

Mariamne put to death.

B.C.

25

Jewish History

Herod rebuilds Samaria.

B.C.

17

Jewish History

Herod restores the temple.

B.C.

6

Jewish History

Alexander and Aristobulus put to death.