Chronology of the Old Testament
    Footnotes

    Chronology of the Old Testament

    B.C.

    Sequence of Events in the Days of the Early Patriarchs

    4000

    Fall of Adam.

    Ministry of Enoch.

    Ministry of Noah; the Flood.

    Tower of Babel.

    Ministry of Melchizedek.

    Death of Noah (Gen. 9:28).

    (Those desiring calculated dates on these events may wish to consult published chronologies.)

    Birth of Abram.

    Birth of Isaac.

    Birth of Jacob.

    Birth of Joseph.

    Joseph sold into Egypt (Gen. 37:2).

    Joseph stands before Pharaoh (Gen. 41:46).

    Jacob and his family go down to Egypt.

    Death of Jacob.

    Death of Joseph.

    Birth of Moses.

    The Exodus when Moses was 80 years old.

    Death (translation) of Moses.

    Death of Joshua.

    In the days of Abram we meet with the names of Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, and Amraphel, king of Shinar. Egypt was manifestly a powerful kingdom before and during the patriarchal times, but the early annals of Egypt as they have come down to us help us to few synchronisms that can be relied on.

    After the death of Joshua was the period of the Judges, of whom the first was Othniel and the last Samuel, but the arrangement and dates of the rest are very uncertain.

    The commencement of the Assyrian empire appears to have been somewhere in the period of the Judges, but much of the chronological data preserved in Assyrian tablets is of a mythical character.

    In this section approximate dates are suggested, some help being derived from synchronisms with secular history, which become more numerous with every succeeding century.

    B.C.

    The Undivided Kingdom

    Persons and Events of External History

    1095

    Commencement of Saul’s reign. Samuel lives for a great part of Saul’s reign.

    Nahash, king of Ammon.

    Tiglath-pileser Ⅰ, king of Assyria.

    Agag, king of Amalek.

    Achish, king of Gath.

    1063

    David anointed by Samuel.

    1055

    David king in Hebron.

    1047

    David king in Jerusalem. Nathan and Gad, prophets.

    Hiram, king of Tyre.

    Hadadezer, king of Zobah.

    Toi, king of Hamath.

    Hanun, son of Nahash, king of Ammon.

    1015

    Solomon made king. Death of David.

    1012

    Solomon begins to build the temple.

    Hiram, king of Tyre.

    1004

    Solomon begins to build his own house.

    991

    The buildings are finished.

    Hadad the Edomite is protected in Egypt.

    Genubath, son of Hadad.

    Rezon, king of Zobah.

    Shishak, king of Egypt, shelters Jeroboam.

    975

    Death of Solomon. The ten tribes revolt from Rehoboam.

    In the following table the first column of dates follows the books of Kings and Chronicles; the third column contains a revised chronology derived from inscriptions on Assyrian and other monuments. The kings of Judah are printed in heavy type, and the kings of Israel in capitals.

    B.C.

    Kings of Judah and Israel

    Rev. Chr.

    Internal History

    External History

    Synchronisms

    975

    Rehoboam

    Jeroboam Ⅰ

    953

    Ahijah the Shilomite prophesies, also Shemaiah.

    Penuel built (1 Kgs. 12:25).

    Shishak, king of Egypt.

    949

    Shishak plunders Jerusalem.

    957

    Abijam

    932

    955

    Asa

    929

    954

    Nadab

    927

    Oded and Azariah prophesy.

    Asa’s war with Zerah the Ethiopian.

    953

    Baasha

    925

    War of Israel against Judah.

    Hanani and Jehu prophesy.

    930

    Elah

    901

    Asa’s alliance with Benhadad Ⅰ.

    929

    Zimri

    899

    929

    Omri (at war with Tibni)

    897

    925

    Omri (victorious)

    Benhadad Ⅰ conquers Omri (1 Kgs. 20:34).

    918

    Ahab

    875

    Samaria built (1 Kgs. 16:24).

    Ethbaal (Eithobalus), king of Zidon.

    914

    Jehoshaphat

    873

    Elijah the Tishbite.

    Jericho rebuilt.

    Micaiah son of Imlah prophesies.

    Syrian invasion of Samaria (1 Kgs. 20:34).

    Moab rebels against Israel.

    Mesha, king of Moab.

    898

    Ahaziah

    853

    Jahaziel prophesies (2 Chr. 20:14).

    Eliezer of Mareshah prophesies (2 Chr. 20:37).

    897

    Jehoram

    851

    Elisha prophesies.

    Obadiah prophesies (?).

    Battle of Ramoth-gilead.

    Hazael, king of Syria.

    893

    Joram

    848

    885

    Ahaziah

    844

    884

    Athaliah

    Jehu

    843

    878

    Joash

    837

    Joash buys off Hazael’s invasion (2 Kgs. 12:18).

    Syrian victories over Israel (2 Kgs. 10:32).

    Sardanapalus dies.

    856

    Jehoahaz

    Joel prophesies (?).

    842

    Jehoash

    798

    841

    Amaziah

    797

    Shalmaneser Ⅱ.

    826

    Jeroboam Ⅱ

    790

    Hosea prophesies.

    Jonah prophesies (2 Kgs. 14:25).

    Amaziah subdues Edom (2 Kgs. 14:7).

    Shalmaneser Ⅲ.

    811

    Azariah or Uzziah

    792

    Amos prophesies.

    773

    Zechariah

    749

    First Olympiad.

    772

    Shallum

    748

    772

    Menahem

    748

    There is much uncertainty about the chronology of the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, and Pekah, and from 2 Kgs. 15:1–2, and 30–32, it is clear that there is some confusion in the biblical numbers. Uzziah’s name is now thought to have been discovered in an Assyrian inscription 740 B.C. If that proves correct, the commencement of Isaiah’s prophecy cannot date before that year, and the time of Jotham’s regency may have been counted as regnal years. In these tables the biblical numbers have been adhered to, as far as possible, but they require further elucidation, which we may hope for as the Assyrian chronology becomes more assured.

    Pul, king of Assyria (= Tiglath-pileser Ⅲ?).

    761

    Pekahiah

    759

    Pekah

    Rezin, king of Syria.

    758

    Jotham

    740

    Isaiah begins to prophesy.

    Rome founded.

    Era of Nabonassar, 747.

    Tiglath-pileser Ⅲ, king of Assyria (747–734).

    So, king of Egypt.

    Pekahiah (rev. chr.)

    737

    Pekah (rev. chr.)

    735

    742

    Ahaz

    734

    730

    Hoshea

    733

    726

    Hezekiah

    728

    Shalmaneser Ⅴ, king of Assyria, 727.

    721

    End of the Northern kingdom

    722

    Micah prophesies.

    Sargon.

    Merodach-baladan, king of Babylon, 722.

    Death of Sennacherib, 681.

    Esarhaddon.

    Median kingdom formed.

    697

    Manasseh

    697

    Psammetichus, king of Egypt, 670.

    Fall of No-amon (Thebes), 660.

    642

    Amon

    642

    Nahum prophesies (?).

    Assurbanipal (667–626).

    640

    Josiah

    640

    Huldah the prophetess.

    Jeremiah begins to prophesy, 628.

    Zephaniah prophesies.

    Pharaoh Necho, king of Egypt.

    Nabopolassar, king of Babylon, 625–604.

    609

    Jehoahaz

    609

    Obadiah prophesies (?).

    Fall of Nineveh, 606.

    609

    Jehoiakim

    609

    Daniel carried captive, 606.

    Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, 604–561.

    598

    Jehoiachin

    598

    Habakkuk prophesies.

    598

    Zedekiah

    598

    Ezekiel prophesies.

    587

    Capture of Jerusalem

    587

    B.C.

    Jewish History

    External History

    561

    Jehoiachin’s captivity relaxed.

    Evil-merodach, king of Babylon.

    559

    Commencement of the Persian Empire under Cyrus.

    Neriglissar, king of Babylon, 559–555.

    555

    Belshazzar co-regent with Nabonidus.

    538

    Union of Media and Persia under Cyrus.

    Fall of Babylon.

    537

    Decree of Cyrus for the return of the Jews.

    536

    Joshua, high priest.

    529

    Ahasuerus (Ezra 4:6).

    =Cambyses, king of Persia, 529–521.

    525

    Egypt conquered by Cambyses. Birth of Aeschylus.

    521

    Artaxerxes (Ezra 4:7).

    =Pseudo-Smerdis.

    521

    Darius Ⅰ (Ezra 4:5).

    =Darius Hystaspes.

    520

    The hindered temple building resumed. Haggai and Zechariah prophesy.

    Sophocles born, 495.

    490

    Battle of Marathon.

    486

    Ahasuerus (Esth. 1:1).

    =Xerxes, 486–465.

    Egypt revolts from Persia for 2 years.

    483

    Joiakim, high priest.

    Battles of Thermopylae and Salamis, 480.

    465

    Artaxerxes (Ezra 7:1).

    =Artaxerxes Longimanus.

    458

    Commission of Ezra.

    453

    Eliashib, high priest.

    444

    Nehemiah appointed governor of Judea.

    432

    Nehemiah’s second mission to Jerusalem. Prophecy of Malachi.

    Plato born, 429.

    424

    Darius Ⅱ.

    =Darius Nothus.

    414

    Egypt and Media both revolt from Persia.

    413

    Joiada, high priest.

    404

    Artaxerxes Mnemon.

    401

    Battle of Cunaxa.

    Demosthenes born, 382.

    373

    Johanan, high priest.

    359

    Philip, king of Macedon.

    358

    Darius Ochus.

    Plato dies, 348.

    341

    Jaddua, high priest.

    337

    Arses.

    336

    Darius Ⅲ (Neh. 12:22).

    =Darius Codomannus.

    Philip of Macedon slain.

    332

    Jaddua goes out to meet Alexander.

    Alexander in Syria and Egypt.

    331

    Battle of Arbela.

    330

    Darius slain. End of the Persian power.

    323

    Ptolemy Lagides obtains Egypt.

    Death of Alexander the Great and dismemberment of his empire.

    B.C.

    Jewish History

    Egypt

    Syria

    321

    Onias Ⅰ, high priest.

    320

    Ptolemy (Lagides) Soter takes Jerusalem.

    314

    Antigonus conquers Palestine from Ptolemy.

    312

    Seleucus (Nicator).

    311

    Palestine by treaty assigned to Antigonus.

    302

    Palestine retaken by Ptolemy.

    During this disturbed period many Jews migrated from Palestine and settled in Egypt and in parts of Asia Minor; they were held in much esteem by the rulers of those countries in which they settled.

    301

    Battle of Ipsus. Antigonus defeated by Seleucus.

    300

    Simon the Just, high priest.

    292

    Eleazar, high priest.

    284

    Ptolemy Philadelphus.

    280

    About this time the Septuagint version of the Hebrew scriptures appears to have been commenced in Alexandria, though it was not finished for more than a century after.

    Antiochus (Soter).

    277

    Manasseh, high priest.

    260

    Antiochus (Theos).

    250

    Onias Ⅱ, high priest.

    246

    Ptolemy Euergetes.

    245

    Seleucus Callinicus.

    225

    Tribute due to Egypt not paid by Onias.

    Seleucus Keraunus.

    223

    Antiochus the Great.

    221

    Ptolemy Philopator.

    217

    Simon Ⅱ, high priest.

    Ptolemy’s outrage in the Jewish temple.

    216

    Battle of Raphia.

    Treaty between Antiochus and Ptolemy.

    204

    Ptolemy Epiphanes.

    195

    Onias Ⅲ, high priest.

    187

    Seleucus Philopator.

    180

    Ptolemy Philometor.

    176

    Heliodorus sent to plunder the temple.

    175

    Onias deposed by Antiochus. Jason, high priest.

    Antiochus Epiphanes.

    173

    Cleopatra, guardian of Philometor, dies.

    172

    Menelaus, Jason’s brother, nominated high priest.

    172

    Onias Ⅲ murdered about this time.

    170

    Antiochus defeats the Egyptians.

    169

    Jason seizes Jerusalem, which Antiochus attacks on his return from Egypt and pollutes the temple.

    Second invasion of Egypt.

    168

    Daily sacrifice interrupted.

    Ptolemy Physcon set up for a time in Egypt but soon makes common cause with his brother Philometor.

    Third attack on Egypt.

    167

    Mattathias the Hasmonean revolts.

    166

    Battle of Emmaus. Victory of Judas Maccabaeus.

    165

    Dedication of the temple.

    164

    Antiochus Eupator.

    163

    Lysias defeated by Judas at Bethsura. Alcimus, high priest. Menelaus put to death.

    162

    Demetrius Soter.

    161

    Nicanor defeated at Capharsalama. Death of Judas Maccabaeus at Eleasa.

    Contests between Philometor and Physcon. Appeals to Rome.

    160

    Decree of the Roman Senate in favor of the Jews.

    159

    Death of Alcimus.

    156

    Jonathan, brother of Judas, ruler of Judea.

    153

    Jonathan made high priest by Balas.

    Alexander Balas set up against Demetrius.

    150

    Jonathan honored by Philometor and Balas.

    Alexander Balas, king of Syria.

    149

    Onias, son of Onias Ⅲ, made commander-in-chief in Egypt.

    146

    Ptolemy Philometor opposes Alexander Balas.

    145

    Ptolemy Physcon (Euergetes Ⅱ).

    Demetrius Nicator.

    143

    Jonathan put to death by Tryphon. Simon, high priest.

    142

    Simon, “Prince of the Jews.” Jews allowed to coin money.

    139

    Antiochus Sidetes. Tryphon put to death.

    135

    Murder of Simon. John Hyrcanus, high priest.

    130

    Demetrius Nicator.

    126

    Zebina.

    123

    Antiochus Grypus.

    116

    Ptolemy Lathyrus (Soter Ⅱ).

    109

    Hyrcanus wars on Samaria and destroys the temple on Gerizim.

    Cleopatra and Alexander.

    106

    Hyrcanus dies. Aristobulus (his son), first king of the Jews.

    105

    Alexander Jannaeus made king of the Jews.

    96

    Jannaeus captures Gaza.

    Ptolemy, king of Cyrene, bequeaths his kingdom to the Romans.

    Seleucus succeeds his father Grypus.

    94

    The Pharisees hostile to Jannaeus.

    93

    War of Jannaeus in Gilead and Moab.

    92

    Philip, brother of Seleucus, gains the throne.

    88

    Jannaeus defeated at Shechem.

    87

    Ptolemy Lathyrus recalled.

    83

    Tigranes, king of Armenia, set over Syria.

    80

    Ptolemy Alexander.

    78

    Death of Jannaeus. Alexandra, his widow, rules after him. Hyrcanus Ⅱ, high priest.

    69

    Aristobulus Ⅱ seizes the government.

    66

    Pompey conquers Syria for the Romans.

    Roman Affairs

    65

    Ptolemy Auletes.

    64

    Disputes between Aristobulus and Hyrcanus.

    63

    Jerusalem taken by Pompey. Hyrcanus again high priest.

    54

    Palestine divided into five districts.

    Crassus defeated by the Parthians at Carrhae, 53.

    51

    Crassus plunders the temple.

    Cleopatra.

    48

    Antipater made a governor over Judea.

    Battle of Pharsalia.

    Battle of Thapsus, 46.

    44

    Hyrcanus, “Prince of the Jews.”

    Assassination of Caesar.

    42

    Battle of Philippi.

    41

    Herod and Phasael, joint tetrarchs of Judea.

    40

    Herod flees to Rome. Antigonus set up in his stead.

    38

    Herod marries Mariamne.

    37

    Herod takes Jerusalem.

    31

    Battle of Actium.

    Augustus, emperor, 31 B.C.A.D. 14.

    30

    Cleopatra dies. Egypt becomes a Roman province.

    29

    Mariamne put to death.

    25

    Herod rebuilds Samaria.

    17

    Herod restores the temple.

    6

    Alexander and Aristobulus put to death.