Maps and Charts
    Footnotes

    “Maps and Charts,” Old Testament Student Manual Genesis-2 Samuel (1980), 1–19

    “Maps and Charts,” Old Testament Student Manual, 1–19

    Maps and Charts

    Elevations of the Holy Land

    Old Testament World

    The Exodus

    The Holy Land in Old Testament Times

    Gospel Dispensations

    The Family of Abraham

    Old Testament Chronology Chart

    Old Testament Coinage

    Standard Measures of Volume

    Weights and Measures

    Linear Measures

    Ancient Jewish Calendar

    Elevations

    Elevations of the Holy Land

    N

    W

    E

    S

    Level of the Mediterranean Sea

    The Plains of Sharon

    The Shephelah

    Jerusalem

    Jericho

    Eastern tablelands of Trans-Jordan

    Level of Dead Sea -1,300

    Bottom of the Dead Sea -2.600

    N

    W

    E

    S

    Mediterranean Sea

    Mt. Zion 2,540

    Mt. Moriah 2,440

    Mount of Olives 2,665

    Mt. Gerizim 2,848

    Mt. Ebal 3,075

    Mt. Gilboa 1,715

    Mt. Tabor 1,843

    Dan

    Mt. Hermon 9,200

    Dead Sea

    Jericho

    Jerusalem

    Sea of Galilee

    Lake Huleh

    © IRI

    Old Testament World A

    Old Testament World

    Scale

    0

    25

    50

    75

    100

    125

    Miles

    Kilometers

    175

    150

    125

    100

    75

    50

    25

    0

    Hittites

    Kittim

    The Great Sea

    Goshen

    Egypt

    Sinai

    Red Sea

    Midian

    Edom

    Canaan

    Moab

    Ammon

    Bashan

    Syria (Aram)

    Padan-Aram

    Assyria

    Caspian Sea

    Media

    Babylonia

    Chaldea

    Elam

    Persia

    (Persian Gulf)

    Mt. Hermon

    Wilderness of Zin

    Mt. Sinai

    Nile River

    Mt. Ararat

    Tigris River

    Euphrates River

    Carchemish

    Haran

    Hamath

    Kadesh

    Tadmor

    Sidon

    Damascus

    Tyre

    Megiddo

    Samaria

    Shechem

    Joppa

    Jericho

    Jerusalem

    Rameses (Zoan)

    Beersheba

    Kadesh-bernea

    On (Heliopolis)

    Memphis (Noph)

    Petra

    Ezion-geber

    Nineveh

    Asshur

    Babylon

    Susa

    Ur

    © 2003 IRI

    The Exodus

    The Exodus

    The Exodus

    Approximate Route of the Exodus

    Unsuccessful Invasion of Canaan

    Scale

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    Miles

    Kilometers

    140

    120

    100

    80

    60

    40

    20

    0

    The Great Sea

    Egypt

    Goshen

    Sinai

    Red Sea

    Midian

    Edom

    Negev

    Moab

    Canaan

    Ammon

    Pithom

    Heliopolis (On)

    Memphis (Noph)

    Rameses (Tanis)

    Succoth

    Kadesh-barnea

    Marah?

    Elim?

    Dophkah?

    Hazeroth

    Kiboth-hattawath

    Rephidim

    Taberah

    Ai

    Jericho

    Jerusalem

    Lachish

    Gaza

    Hebron

    Dibon

    Hormath

    Arad

    Zoar

    Oboth

    Punon

    Ezion-geber

    Nile River

    Wilderness of Shur

    Bitter Lakes

    Brook of Egypt

    Wilderness of Etham

    Wilderness of Paran

    Mt. Sinai

    Mt. Nebo

    © 2003 IRI

    Holy Land in Old Testament

    The Holy Land in Old Testament Times

    Scale

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    40

    Miles

    Kilometers

    55

    50

    45

    40

    35

    30

    25

    20

    15

    10

    5

    0

    The Great Sea

    Phoenicia

    Bashan

    Gilead

    Ammon

    Moab

    Midianites

    Edom (Seir)

    Negev

    Amalekites

    Philistines

    Mt. Carmel

    Plains of Sharon

    Mt. Gilboa

    Mt. Ebal

    Mt. Gerizim

    Jordan River

    Salt Sea

    Zered River

    Arnon River

    Mt. Nebo

    Jabbok River

    Yarmuk River

    Sea of Chinnereth

    Mt. Tabor

    Tyre

    Acco

    Dor

    Joppa

    Ashdod

    Ekron

    Ashkelon

    Gath

    Gaza

    Eglon

    Jokneam

    Endor

    Megiddo

    Taanach

    Jazreel

    Dotham

    Samaria

    Tirzah

    Shecham

    Beth-Dagon

    Shiloh

    Bethel

    Ai

    Beth Horon

    Mizpah

    Aijalon

    Gibeon

    Jericho

    Kirjath-Jearim

    Gibeah

    Beth Shemesh

    Jerusalem

    Bethlehem

    Gath

    Azekah

    Lachish

    Tekoa

    Hebron

    Debir

    En-gedi

    Ziklag

    Beersheba

    Arab

    Dan

    Mt. Hermon

    Kedesh

    Hazor

    Beth-shan

    Succoth

    Penuel

    Mizpah

    Sodom and Gomorrah

    Zoar

    Golan

    Ramoth Gilead

    Rabbah

    Heshbon

    Medeba

    Dibon

    © 2003 IRI

    dipensation chart

    Gospel Dispensations

    First Dispensation

    Second Dispensation

    Third Dispensation

    Jaredite Dispensation

    Lost Tribes

    Fourth Dispensation

    Fifth Dispensation

    Sixth Dispensation

    Lehi—Nephite Dispensation

    Seventh Dispensation

    Adam (b. 4000 B.C.)1

    Seth

    Enos

    Cainan

    Mahaleleel

    Jared

    6 Generations

    (Moses 5:6–12; 6:64–68)

    Beginning of Mortality. Adam taught children.

    Enoch

    Methuselah

    Lamech

    3 Generations

    (Moses 6:25–39; 8:1; D&C 107:49)

    Enoch apparently called by the Lord at age 65. Dispensation probably commenced in 3313 B.C., 687 years after the first dispensation began (see D&C 107:47–49.)

    Noah (b. 2944 B.C.)

    Shem

    Arphaxad

    Salah

    Eber

    Peleg

    Reu

    Serug

    Nahor

    Terah

    10 Generations

    (Genesis 6:8–9, 13; 7:6; Moses 8:19)

    Noah walked with God. Noah entered ark at age 600. Flood commenced at approx. 2344 B.C.; beginning of third dispensation with 8 people, 969 years after the second dispensation began.

    Approx. 2234 B.C.

    Tower of Babel.

    Confusion of Tongues and scattering

    Carried away 721–717 B.C. (? Dispensations among lost tribes)

    Abraham (b. 1992 B.C., if born when Terah was 130 years of age)

    Isaac

    6 Generations

    Jacob (Israel)

    (Abraham 1:16–19; 2:14; Genesis 12:1–4; 17:1)

    Abraham called by the Lord at approx. age 75 (Genesis 12:4) or 62 (Abraham 2:14). The Fourth dispensation commenced approx. 1917 B.C., 427 years after the third dispensation began.

    Reuben

    Simeon

    Levi

    Kohath

    Amram

    Judah

    Zebulon

    Issachar

    14 generations from Abraham to David (Matthew 1:17)

    Gad

    Asher

    Dan

    Naphtali

    Joseph

    Benjamin

    Ephraim

    Manasseh

    Several Generations

    Ishmael

    Lehi

    David

    14 generations

    Jechonias (carried to Babylon)

    14 generations

    Jesus Christ (b. A.D. 1)

    Moses (b. approx. 1567 B.C.)

    Age 80 when children of Israel delivered. Fifth dispensation commenced approx. 1487 B.C., 430 years after the fourth dispensation (See Exodus 3:7–12).

    Twelve Apostles

    (Dispensation of the meridian of time)

    Commenced about A.D. 30, approx. 1517 years after the fifth dispensation began.

    Joseph Smith (b. A.D. 1805)

    (Dispensation of the fullness of times)

    (Acts 3:19–21; Ephesians 1:9–10; D&C 27:13)

    Joseph Smith, age 24 years and 3 months when The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was organized in 1830. Commencement of last dispensation 1800 years after the sixth dispensation began.

    (600 B.C.)

    Nephi and Lehi (20 B.C.)

    (Helaman 10:3–17; 11:19–23; 3 Nephi 7:15–19; 9:15–22; 11:7–40)

    Commencement of 200 years of peace—A.D. 34

    © IRI

    1. Dates are approximate nd should not be considered exact. They are based on Calmet’s Chronology wich more closely approaches the biblical dates mentioned in Lectures on Faith. Ussher’s Chronology shows a difference of approximately four years for each ancient period. Thus the Adamic age is listed as 4004 B.C. and the birth of Christ as 4 B.C.

      (Adapted from Joseph Fielding Smith, Jr., comp., “Our Gospel Dispensations,” Instructor, Nov. 1959, inside back cover.)

    Abraham chart

    The Family of Abraham

    Abraham: “Father of Many Nations”

    Noah

    Shem

    Terah

    Abraham (Abram)

    Nahor

    Haran

    Milcah

    Lot

    Iscah

    Sarai

    Isaac

    Bethuel

    Rebekah

    Laban

    Esau

    Jacob

    Leah

    Rachel

    (seventh great-grandson of Noah)

    (Genesis 11:10–26)

    Married Sarah (Sarai)

    (daughter of Haran)

    (Genesis 11:29)

    Married Milcah (daughter of Haran)

    (Genesis 20:20–22)

    (Genesis 11:27–29; Times and Seasons, 1 Mar. 1842, 705)

    (Genesis 18:1–14; 21:1–3)

    Married Rebekah

    (daughter of Bethuel)

    (Genesis 25:21–26)

    (Genesis 22:23)

    (Genesis 24:29)

    (sold his birthright to Jacob)

    (Genesis 25:29–34)

    (Genesis 29:16)

    Through Hagar, Sarah’s handmaiden, Abraham fathered Ishmael (see Genesis 17:20). After Sarah’s death, Abraham married Keturah, through whom he had six children, named in Genesis 25:1–2.

    Jacob: Father of the Twelve Tribes of Israel

    Leah

    Rachel

    Bilhah

    Zilpah

    Reuben

    Simeon

    Levi

    Judah

    Issachar

    Zebulon

    Dinah (a daughter)

    Joseph

    Benjamin

    Dan

    Naphtali

    Gad

    Asher

    Lehi’s Lineage

    Manasseh

    Ephraim

    (Adapted from Burl Shephard, comp., “The Family of Abraham,” Instructor, Jan. 1964, inside back cover.)

    © IRI

    Old Testament chart 1

    Old Testament Chronology Chart

    3900

    3800

    3700

    3600

    3500

    3400

    3300

    3200

    3100

    3000

    2900

    2800

    2700

    2600

    2500

    2400

    2300

    2200

    2100

    2000

    1900

    The Old Testament

    Chronology Chart

    Prepared by the Church Educational System

    Books of the Old Testament

    Adam 930

    Seth 912

    Enos 905

    Cainan 910

    Mahalaleel 895

    Jared 962

    Enoch 430

    Methuselah 969

    Lamech 777

    Noah 950

    Japheth

    Shem 610

    Ham

    Canaan

    Mizraim

    Arphaxad 438

    Salah 433

    Eber 464

    Peleg 239

    Reu 239

    Serug 230

    Nahor 148

    Terah 205

    Abraham

    Abraham 175

    Abraham leaves Ur

    Abraham settles in Canaan

    Isaac born

    Brother of Jared

    Gentiles

    Mesopotamia

    Land of Canaan

    Egypt

    Western Hemisphere

    (Jaredites)

    Age of the Patriarchs

    Age of the Patriarchs

    Age of Abraham

    Cain and Able

    City of Enoch translated

    The Flood

    Tower of Babel

    Jaredites leave for New World

    © IRI

    Old Testament chart 3

    1900

    1800

    1700

    1600

    1500

    1400

    1300

    1200

    1100

    1000

    900

    800

    700

    600

    500

    400

    300

    200

    100

    A.D.1

    100

    Mesopotamia

    Land of Canaan

    Egypt

    Western Hemisphere

    (Jaredites)

    Minor Kingdoms

    Assyria

    Persia

    Seleucids

    Rome

    Ptolemies

    Seleucids

    Rome

    Ptolemies

    Seleucids

    Rome

    Persia

    Ptolemies

    Rome

    Book of Mormon

    (Nephites and Lamanites)

    Kingdom of Israel

    Kingdom of Judah

    Age of Abraham

    Israel in Egypt

    Return to Canaan

    Reign of the Judges

    United Kingdom

    Divided Kingdom

    Divided Kingdom

    Exile

    Return of Jews

    Greek Domination

    Maccabeans

    Roman Domination

    Babylon

    Samaritans

    Babylon

    Persia

    Maccabeans

    Maccabeans

    Abraham 175

    Isaac born

    Esau and Jacob born

    Joseph born

    Manasseh and Ehpraim

    Israel and family in Egypt

    Moses

    Exodus

    Israel enters Canaan

    Joshua

    Gideon

    Samson

    Ruth

    Samuel

    Nathan

    Temple built

    Elijah

    Elisha

    Jonah

    Assyrian Captivity

    Ten tribes

    Daniel

    Ezekiel

    Esther

    First Babylonian captivity

    Second Babylonian captivity

    First return

    Second return

    Third return

    Isaiah

    Lehi leaves Jerusalem

    Jeremiah

    Jerusalem destroyed

    Third Babylonian captivity

    Mulek leaves Jerusalem

    Haggai

    Zechariah

    Temple rebuilt

    Ezra

    Malachi

    Jesus Christ

    Nephi

    Jacob

    Mosiah

    Alma

    Helaman

    Jesus Christ

    Saul

    David

    Solomon

    Asa

    Jehoshaphat

    Rehoboam

    Jeroboam

    Ahab

    Omri

    Jehoram

    Uzziah

    Hezekiah

    Josiah

    Deuteronomy

    Numbers

    Joshua

    Ruth

    2 Samuel

    1 Chronicles

    Job?

    Jonah?

    Joel?

    Amos

    Zephaniah

    Nahum

    Habakkuk

    Jeremiah & Lamentations

    Ezekiel

    Obadiah?

    Zechariah

    Haggai

    Esther

    Malachi

    Nehemiah

    Genesis

    Exodus

    Leviticus

    Judges

    1 Samuel

    1 Kings

    Poetry and Wisdom Literature

    2 Kings

    2 Chronicles

    Psalms, Proverbs, Song of Solomon, Ecclesiastes

    Hosea

    Isaiah

    Micah

    Daniel

    Ezra

    coinage

    Old Testament Coinage

    Before the invention of coinage, precious metals were used as part of the barter system. Money became popular during the seventh century B.C., but it never completely replaced the old system. From early times, gold, silver, and copper had been popular exchange items. Gradually, a system of standardization developed. The metals were weighed out and quality checked. Some of the names of metals became the names of coins, which at first were roughly circular and impressed with a seal. Their weight seldom exceeded that of the silver or gold shekel.

    *A talent of gold was just over one-half the size of a talent of silver, but at talent of gold had the same weight as a talent of silver.

    Silver coins

    Gerah

    20 gerahs = 1 shekel

    1 shekel

    Shekel

    3,000 shekels = 1 talent

    1 talent

    Gold coins

    Gerah

    20 gerahs = 1 shekel

    1 shekel

    Shekel

    3,000 shekels = 1 talent*

    1 talent*

    © IRI

    measure of volume

    Standard Measures of Volume

    Liquid Measures

    Bath (22 liters or 5.8 gallons)

    Hin (3.66 liters or 3.9 quarts)

    Kab (1.2 liters or 2.5 pints)

    Log (.3 liters or 1.3 cups)

    10 baths = 1 homer (or kor) “a donkey load” (220 liters or 58 gallons)

    Dry Measures

    Ephah (22 liters or .62 bushel)

    Seah (7.3 liters or 6.6 quarts)

    Omer (2.2 liters or 2 quarts)

    Kab (1.2 liters or 1 quart)

    Log (.3 liters or .5 pint)

    5 ephahs = 1 lathech (half-homer) (110 liters or 3.1 bushels)

    10 ephahs = 1 homer (220 liters or 6.2 bushels)

    © IRI

    weights

    Weights and Measures

    Although both David and Ezekiel attempted to standardize weights and measures, complete uniformity was never achieved. Some of the unscrupulous tried to turn this situation to their advantage by keeping two sets of weights. To guard against unfairness, it was not uncommon for individuals to carry their own weights with them in purse or bag. The need for this practice brought strong rebukes from the prophets because it indicated the poor spiritual condition of the Israelites.

    The heavy, royal shekel weighed 13 gm. The heavy, double-standard talent weighed 60 kg.

    10 gerahs

    1 bekah

    (approx. 6 gm or .21 oz)

    2 bekahs

    1 shekel

    (approx. 11 gm or .39 oz)

    50 shekels

    1 mina

    (approx. 500 gm or 17.5 oz)

    60 minas

    1 talent

    (approx. 30 kg or 66 lbs)

    © IRI

    Linear Measures

    Linear Measures

    1. Cubit (elbow to finger-tip) 18 in. or 45 cm. The long cubit was a handbreadth longer 20.4 in. or 52 cm. 6 cubits = 1 reed.

    2. Span (outstretched hand from thumb to little finger): three handbreadths or half a cubit 9 in. or 23 cm.

    3. Palm or handbreadth (width of the hand at the base of the fingers) 3 in. or 76 mm.

    4. Finger or digit (1/4 handbreadth) 3/4 in. or 19 mm.

    1

    2

    3

    4

    © IRI

    Jewish Calendar

    Ancient Jewish Calendar

    (Seven weeks)

    Pentecost

    1st: New Year/Feast of Trumpets (Leviticus 23:23–25)

    10th: Day of Atonement (Leviticus 16:29–30)

    15th–21st: Feast of Tabernacles/Booths (Nehemiah 8)

    25th: Festival of Lights (John 10: 22)

    14th/15th: Purim (Esther 9:26–28)

    14th: Passover, followed by Festival of Unleavened Bread (Exodus 12:6; Luke 22:13–20)

    21st: Firstfruits

    Summer

    Hot season: Isaiah 18:4

    Fall equinox

    First rains: Deuteronomy 11:14

    Early rains: Ezra 10:9 Winter

    Latter rains: Jeremiah 3:3

    Spring equinox

    Barley harvest: Ruth 1:22

    Winter wheat harvest

    Winter wheat harvest

    Grape, fig, walnut, and olive harvest Vintage begins: Numbers 13:20

    Vegetable, cotton, pomegranate, and olive harvest General vintage: Isaiah 32:10

    Plowing and sowing

    Rice harvest Winter wheat and barley planting

    Spring growth

    Winter fig and citrus harvest

    Flax pulling

    Barley harvest begins

    Month 1 Nisan (Abib)

    Month 2 Iyyar (Ziv)

    Month 3 Sivan

    Month 4 Tammuz

    Month 5 Ab

    Month 6 Elul

    Month 7 Tishri (Ethanim)

    Month 8 Marchesvan (Bul)

    Month 9 Kislev

    Month 10 Tebet

    Month 11 Shebat

    Month 12 Adar

    January

    February

    March

    April

    May

    June

    July

    August

    September

    October

    Novemeber

    December

    © IRI