So, a lot of Church members haven't even heard of the Kirtland Bank, and those that have have a lot of questions generally. So, March of 1836 is a high point for the Church. They've just completed and dedicated the Kirtland Temple. But just over a year later, there's a devastating low point for the Church. And a lot of this stemmed from the Kirtland Bank. So why did Church leaders start a bank? So, I know a bank doesn't make a lot of sense to us, but it made a lot of sense to them. They have substantial debts from building the Kirtland Temple. They need to build up Kirtland as a gathering place for the Saints. And Joseph's long-term perspective in all of this--and especially in starting the bank--is to build Zion. And they need money to do that. And 1836 seems to be a good year for them to try this. They're hoping that a bank will provide the liquidity that they need. The only asset they have is land. And they're cash poor. And in an attempt to get the cash they need, they form a bank which can turn land, as collateral, into loans that they can then use and that will boost the economy. So the bank itself is already built on loans upon loans. That seems to be a difficult issue to even start with. Yeah, there's funding issues right from the get-go. So the bank struggles. They never get a lot of internal support. Only about 200 stockholders ever really sign up for the bank. You're also faced with a lot of external opposition. There's a lot of religious prejudice. And people like Grandison Newall are able to use that and to get these anti-Mormon forces to attack the bank. And ultimately, there's a financial panic in the spring of 1837 that leads to a crushing economic downfall. There's so much working against them from the get-go that it's over in seven months, basically. Right. It's very short lived. I think Joseph had really grand ambitions. And I think the Saints got behind these grand ambitions. There's a lot of optimism, a lot of willingness to take this risk with him. And so when it fails, that fallout is really bad. So, if their prophet can make mistakes or start a bank that fails, how do the members make sense of this experience? The reactions kind of vary across the spectrum. Brigham Young is a stalwart. He's able to weather this fairly easily and say Joseph may have made poor financial choices, I still believe he's a prophet. On the other extreme, you've got Warren Parrish who turns against Joseph and is actively trying to undermine him. He's angry. He's upset. And you have probably even more members who are like Parley P. Pratt or Vilate Kimball who are struggling with it but are finding a way to continue to choose to follow Joseph Smith even in the midst of these struggles, setbacks, and failures. Right. So unlike Young, Pratt really finds himself questioning. He is faced with serious economic consequences. He may lose his house. And he starts questioning Joseph vocally and in front of the Church congregations, but it's for a relatively short amount of time. And then he is able to meet with Joseph, beg his forgiveness, and realize that he's an imperfect man but that he's still the prophet that he trusts and will follow. And then you've got Vilate Kimball. She has a lot of pity for the dissenters, who by this time have been excommunicated. But she says the Lord requires His people to be chastened in all things. And she doesn't feel that they're justifiable in the course that they have taken. So how did Joseph himself come out of this? I mean financially but also with his personal relationships and leadership in the Church. Financially, this is pretty devastating for Joseph. We don't have exact figures. But from the documents we do have, it looks like he lost over $6,000 in this endeavor. And in terms of his leadership, I think as much as the dissenters felt betrayed, Joseph also feels betrayed. He had these men who were close to him, and suddenly they're turning against him, calling him a fallen prophet. And all he's doing is trying to build Zion and follow the commandments that God has given him. What I find fascinating about this moment looking back now is the Saints are faced with the decision "Am I going to continue to follow what I believe to be a prophet even if he can be flawed make mistakes? Is he still a prophet to me?" Well, right. And they're the ones that have to deal with the consequences of those mistakes, right? It's not a mistake that affects Joseph alone but the Church writ large. Joseph Young, reflecting on this almost 50 years later, calls this a stumbling block for the Saints, this kind of point of decision where they have to really decide if they feel that Joseph Smith's a prophet and if they'll follow him come what may--if that's failure, if that's suffering, if that's sacrifice.